In keeping with the burden and resistance issue layout philosophy (LRFD), this publication is the results of a five-year study attempt less than AASHTO's nationwide Cooperative road examine software (NCHRP) undertaking 12-42, and a persisted attempt via AASHTO technical committees. This significant step in greater bridge layout and extra actual research is predicted to guide to bridges showing more advantageous serviceability, stronger long term maintainability, and extra uniform degrees of safeguard. because the First variation was once released in 1994, the provisions have persevered to be up to date and more advantageous in response to carrying on with examine and the event of the consumer neighborhood. the hot requirements were systematically validated in trial designs and feature now been applied via all 50 states, with forty eight states totally applied.
integrated during this digital variation are the 2008 and 2009 period in-between Revisions. Following every one bankruptcy the revisions are pointed out in addition to associated in the course of the whole booklet the place on hand. See the replaced and Deleted Articles sections for an entire checklist of alterations to every part.
Preface and Abbreviated desk of Contents
desk of Contents
replaced and Deleted Articles, 2007
replaced and Deleted Articles, 2008
replaced and Deleted Articles, 2009
Section 1. Introduction
Section 2. basic layout and site Features
Section three. so much and cargo Factors
Section four. Structural research and Evaluation
Section five. Concrete Structures
Section 6. metal Structures
Section 7. Aluminum Structures
Section eight. wooden Structures
Section nine. Decks and Deck Systems
Section 10. Foundations
Section eleven. Abutments, Piers, and Walls
Section 12. Buried constructions and Tunnel Liners
Section thirteen. Railings
Section 14. Joints and Bearings
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Additional resources for AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Customary U.S. Units with 2008 and 2009 U.S. Edition Interim Revisions
Consideration shall be given to the durability of materials in direct contact with soil and/or water. 0 in. from the fascia edges. Where the deck is interrupted by a sealed deck joint, all surfaces of piers and abutments, other than bearing seats, shall have a minimum slope of 5 percent toward their edges. For open deck joints, this minimum slope shall be increased to 15 percent. In the case of open deck joints, the bearings shall be protected against contact with salt and debris. Wearing surfaces shall be interrupted at the deck joints and shall be provided with a smooth transition to the deck joint device.
To permit correction of the deck profile by grinding, and to compensate for thickness loss due to abrasion. 5—Utilities Where required, provisions shall be made to support and maintain the conveyance for utilities. © 2012 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law. 1 Bridges should be designed to avoid undesirable structural or psychological effects due to their deformations. While deflection and depth limitations are made optional, except for orthotropic plate decks, any large deviation from past successful practice regarding slenderness and deflections should be cause for review of the design to determine that it will perform adequately.
2—Criteria for Deflection The criteria in this Section shall be considered optional, except for the following: The provisions for orthotropic decks shall be considered mandatory. 9 for precast reinforced concrete three-sided structures shall be considered mandatory. 2. In applying these criteria, the vehicular load shall include the dynamic load allowance. 2 These provisions permit, but do not encourage, the use of past practice for deflection control. Designers were permitted to exceed these limits at their discretion in the past.