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By Sandra L. Singer

In the interval among the Civil struggle and international battle I, German universities supplied North American ladies with possibilities in graduate education that weren't on hand to them at domestic. This education allowed ladies to compete to a better measure with males in more and more professionalized fields. In go back for such possibilities, those ladies performed a key position in starting up German universities to all girls. Many dedicated the remainder of their lives to making larger study and graduate possibilities for different girls, ceaselessly altering the process greater schooling in North America.

This research presents debts of the extraordinary obstacles encountered by means of those first girls scholars in Europe. It records their perseverance and hard-won triumphs and contains besides the tales of the revolutionary males who mentored them and fought for his or her rights to better schooling. by no means prior to has documentation of such a lot of North American scholars at German-speaking universities been integrated in a single quantity. This choice of tales from girls throughout disciplines makes it attainable to evaluate the actually amazing nature in their mixed contributions to better schooling and study in North the USA and Europe.

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During that same period of time, they comprised 62 percent of all women studying at Swiss universities. 80 Russian women tended to study medicine. Between 1882 and 1913, 74 percent of Russian women at Swiss universities studied medicine. This is in contrast to 36 percent of the rest of the women students. 83 During that same period of time, it appears that no North American woman earned a medical degree in Berlin. These few statistics help to illustrate the huge discrepancy between the numbers of Russian and North American women at German-speaking universities with some of the largest populations of foreign students.

11 It was almost impossible for a woman to find a faculty position except at a women's medical college. As late as 1912, in a speech held on the Bryn Mawr College campus, Alice Hamilton (1869-1970), one of the leading women physicians in industrial medicine, warned women students that they would still have difficulties obtaining staff positions at hospitals. 12 In the face of such limitations, the main way in which women used the skills they had acquired in Europe was to establish a private practice or to train and educate other women at colleges, hospitals and dispensaries established primarily by women for women.

90 At Zurich, nonRussian women, including Germans and the first American medical student, signed a petition urging the university to adopt stricter admission requirements. 93 Even M. Carey Thomas, one of the strongest advocates for women's educa- tion in the nineteenth century, felt that Russian women threatened her position at the University of Leipzig, where Thomas was enrolled from 1879 to 1882. She believed that the Saxon government was afraid to continue to admit women for fear that a wave of Russian women would descend upon its universities as it had in Zurich.

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