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Besides apparatus for determining the distillation range, crude fractionation apparatus was employed, but the theory of fractional distillation was at that time very deficient, and progress ( 7) was slow. Even Young's important book published in 1 9 2 2 , was largely an account of industrial apparatus designed on the grand old plan of trial and error, following what were thought to be the best features of previous designs. Stimulus to a better understanding of fractionation and its intensive application to analysis came from the increasing demand for petrol of better quality; the key papers are ( 8) ( 9) Most of the contrithose of McCabe and Thiele, and Fenske.

Its chief use is in the analysis of steels that also contain nickel; it is perhaps not as precise as the old potassium cobaltinitrite method, but is much quicker. Unless some such oxidizing agent as hydrogen peroxide is present, the reagent itself acts as an oxidizing agent and the precipitate is contaminated with its reduction products, brown and tarry, instead of being a red filterable solid. Once the compound is formed, it may be washed with 4 M hydrochloric acid to remove nickel and iron. Also, it is far more soluble in chloroform than the iron and nickel compounds, and this property is used in the spectrophotometric determination of small amounts of cobalt; for this purpose the ß-nitroso-a-naphthol is superior to the more usual reagent.

A-NITROSO-jS-NAPHTHOL Originally synthesized by Groves and Stenhouse in 1884, its ( 1) potentialities as a reagent were discovered by Ilinsky and von THE ( 2) F I R S T O R G A N I C REAGENTS FOR M E T A L S 33 K n o r r e in the succeeding year. Ilinsky noted that whereas both α-nitroso-ß-naphthol and ß-nitroso-a-naphthol reacted with cobalt, the αα-compound did not. He found that the cobalt compounds were stable to acids, alkalis, and reducing agents, but were decom( 2) posed by ammonium sulphide.

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