Download An Introduction to Political Philosophy by Alexander Rainy Maclean Murray PDF

By Alexander Rainy Maclean Murray

First released in 1953, this seminal creation to political philosophy is meant for either the scholar of political thought and for the overall reader. After an advent and is the reason the character and function of philosophy, Dr Murray presents a serious exam of the main theories complex by way of political philosophers from Plato to Marx, paying certain realization to modern concerns. The e-book additionally attempts to outline the fundamental problems with philosophical importance in modern politics, with targeted connection with the clash among political authority and person rights, and to teach how the several ethical assumptions underlying authoritarian and democratic platforms of presidency are eventually established upon diversified theories of good judgment.

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Unlike Plato, who set himself to describe an Ideal State, Aristotle believes that the best possible state may take a variety of different forms. He does not think that it would be true to assert as a universal principle that the power of government is always best exercised by a single man, or by a minority, or by the community as a whole. It is possible for any of these alternatives to provide the best form of government for a community, and it is also possible for any of them to provide a bad form of government Whether the government is good or bad does not depend upon whether it is exercised by a single person, or by a minority, or by the people as a whole, but upon the way in which it is exercised.

For them it meant the permanent and objective charac teristics of independent reality in contrast to the variable and subjective beliefs and conventions of individuals or communities; but for Aristotle "nature* is essentially a biological conception. In his own words: The nature of a thing is its end. 1 Thus for Aristotle the nature of a thing is not what the thing is but what it is capable ofbecoming. Its nature is not a static but a developing conception. And just as in biology the 'nature' of a seed can only be discovered by the observation of its growth, so in politics the nature of a state can only be discovered by observation of its development and tendencies.

Some would say with Hume that the incompatible beliefs held about the rights and wrongs of these issues, and the impossibility of deciding between them by reference to some independent standard, justify the theory that such beliefs relate not to objective facts but to subjective feelings and that they are, in fact, descriptions of feelings experienced by the speaker or by some social group to which he belongs. But, even if Plato was mistaken in his assumption that moral propositions are a priori, his theory remains a valuable exposition of the logical consequences of making this assumption—consequences which have not always been so clearly and consistently deduced by others.

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