By Georges Roux
The publication presents an creation to the historical past of historic Mesopotamia and its civilizations, incorporating archaeological and ancient unearths as much as 1992.
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There is another revealing trend in the environmental record. To a large extent the beginning of the Neolithic period corresponds with a dramatic decline in the amount of elm pollen. It no longer seems likely that this is the result of a specific economic practice, like ring-barking growing trees or collecting leaf fodder. It is more likely that the phenomenon results from the rapid spread of a disease which attacked this particular species (Girling and Grieg 1985). It happened over such a restricted period of time that the ‘Elm Decline’ has been used as a chronological marker, and yet it seems likely that the spread of the disease itself was facilitated by the movement of people on an increasing scale.
The earliest traces of cultivation with the primitive plough known as an ard occurs even later, between about 3500 and 3250 BC (Sherratt 1997: fig. 2). Still more important, the settlements which do contain a mixture of Mesolithic and Neolithic material culture are largely found along a restricted section of the Scottish coastline, but there is nothing to prove that both assemblages were in use simultaneously (WickhamJones 1990; Armit and Finlayson 1992). Although this could be compared with P1: JZZ 0521848113c02 CUFX059/Bradlay Printer: cupusbw 0 521 84811 3 March 9, 2007 6:9 A New Beginning the evidence from Northern Europe, it seems to be a local phenomenon, and one which may even have happened some time after the beginning of the Neolithic period.
9). McGrail’s research was specifically concerned with the sea routes documented by Classical writers in the immediate pre-Roman period. This is important because it explains some of the premises of his argument. It is 19 P1: JZZ 0521848113c01 CUFX059/Bradlay 20 Printer: cupusbw 0 521 84811 3 March 8, 2007 6:17 The Prehistory of Britain and Ireland concerned with trade in bulky commodities including wine amphorae and tin. It also presupposes that ships were equipped with sails. This is a reasonable proposition and is supported by depictions of late prehistoric vessels, but it is likely that earlier boats were rowed or paddled.