By Kenneth F. Kitchell Jr.
The historical Greeks and Romans lived in a global teeming with animals. Animals have been vital to historic trade, conflict, love, literature and artwork. contained in the urban they have been chanced on as pets, pests, and parasites. they can be sacred, sacrificed, liminal, staff, or intruders from the wild. past the town domesticated animals have been herded and bred for revenue and wild animals have been looked for excitement and achieve alike. experts like Aristotle, Aelian, Pliny and Seneca studied their anatomy and behaviour. Geographers and tourists defined new lands when it comes to their animals. Animals are to be visible on each attainable creative medium, woven into textile and inlaid into furnishings. they're the topic of proverbs, oaths and goals. Magicians, physicians and fans grew to become to animals and their components for his or her crafts. They paraded ahead of kings, inhabited palaces, and entertained the terrible within the area. fairly actually, animals pervaded the traditional international from A-Z.
In entries starting from brief to lengthy, Kenneth Kitchell bargains perception into this as a rule missed international, protecting consultant and exciting examples of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. accepted animals similar to the cow, puppy, fox and donkey are taken care of besides extra unique animals corresponding to the babirussa, pangolin, and dugong. The facts adduced levels from Minoan occasions to the overdue Roman Empire and is taken from archaeology, historical authors, inscriptions, papyri, cash, mosaics and all different inventive media. each time attainable reasoned identifications are given for old animal names and the realities at the back of animal lore are introduced forth. Why did the ancients imagine hippopotamuses practiced blood letting on themselves? How do you seize a monkey? Why have been hyenas considered hermaphroditic? used to be there fairly a vampire moth? Entries are observed by means of complete citations to historical authors and an intensive bibliography.
Of use to Classics scholars and students, yet written in a mode designed to have interaction someone attracted to Greco-Roman antiquity, Animals within the historic international from A to Z finds the level and significance of the animal global to the traditional Greeks and Romans. It solutions many questions, asks a number of extra, and seeks to stimulate additional study during this vital box.
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Extra resources for Animals in the Ancient World from A to Z
The orangutan, found in Asia, is the only ape found outside of Africa. The socalled Barbary ape is in fact a monkey and is today called the barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus). It is notable for living on Gibraltar, currently the only monkey found in Europe, though it may have been brought there in more modern times. Since most references to “apes” in antiquity involve monkeys, see that article for further information as well as individual animal names. _ The Greek pivqhko~ (pithekos, var. piqavko~, pivqhx, pivqwn); cf.
Oppian (Cyn. 9) praises the care that the she-bear takes of her young once grown and also describes the notorious battles between bulls and bears (cf. Arist. Hist. an. ). tricks. 2). 45). Pythagoras reportedly caused one to promise to cease its predation (Kahn, 5). ” The bear’s ability to rise on its hind legs, its forward-placed eyes, and hand-like paws, has led to its role as a shape shifter (Pastoureau). Callisto and her son Arcas both turned into bears and the latter was the eponymous hero of Arkadia in Greece, where bears were known to roam.
86) follows Nicander’s closely and the marks are again called rods (virgulis). , p. 76), following Ctesias, cites this as a wild animal that has the pelt of a hinnuleus, but with very white spots. It is, he says, sacred to Bacchus. 280) suggest that this is Linnaeus’ Cervus axis (= Axis axis, WMW, 1100–02) a fairly large deer that has striking white spots, known in India as the chital. Bostock and Riley, 1855–57. 7 B Babirusa The babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) is found on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi (formerly Celebese) and neighboring islands (WMW, 1062–63).