By Marshall J., Plumb R.A.
For complicated undergraduate and starting graduate scholars in atmospheric, oceanic, and weather technological know-how, surroundings, Ocean and weather Dynamics is an introductory textbook at the circulations of the ambience and ocean and their interplay, with an emphasis on international scales. it's going to supply scholars an outstanding grab of what the ambience and oceans appear like at the large-scale and why they give the impression of being that manner. The position of the oceans in weather and paleoclimate is additionally mentioned. the combo of observations, thought and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments units this article aside by way of making it obtainable to scholars without previous education in meteorology or oceanography. * Written at a mathematical point that's beautiful for undergraduates andbeginning graduate scholars* offers an invaluable academic instrument via a mix of observations andlaboratory demonstrations that are seen over the internet* comprises directions on tips on how to reproduce the easy yet informativelaboratory experiments* contains copious difficulties (with pattern solutions) to assist scholars research thematerial.
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Additional info for Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics
1. 2. 4. 1. 2. 5. 1. 2. 3. 6. 1. 2. Where does convection occur? 7. 8. 9. Problems We learned in Chapters 2 and 3 that terrestrial radiation emanates to space primarily from the upper troposphere, rather than the ground; much of what radiates from the surface is absorbed within the atmosphere. The surface is thus warmed by both direct solar radiation and downwelling terrestrial radiation from the atmosphere. In consequence, in radiative equilibrium, the surface is warmer than the overlying atmosphere.
2-4, Tm is the measured emission temperature, and Ts is the global mean surface temperature. The rotation period, τ, is given in Earth days. 1, along with that for other planets, is an average corresponding to the average distance of Earth from the Sun, r = 150 × 109 m. The way radiation interacts with an atmosphere depends on the wavelength as well as the intensity of the radiative flux. The relation between the energy flux and wavelength, which is the spectrum, is plotted in Fig. 2. The Sun emits radiation that is primarily in the visible part of the spectrum, corresponding to the colors of the rainbow—red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet—with the energy flux decreasing toward longer (infrared, IR) and shorter (ultraviolet, UV) wavelengths.
The greenhouse works because its windows allow energy in and its walls prevent the warm air from rising or blowing away. 3. 7. The simplest greenhouse model, comprising a surface at temperature Ts , and an atmospheric layer at temperature Ta , subject to incoming solar radiation So /4. The terrestrial radiation upwelling from the ground is assumed to be completely absorbed by the atmospheric layer. from the ground) so that the layer emitting to space is also ‘‘seen’’ by the ground. Now, since the whole Earth-atmosphere system must be in equilibrium (on average), the net flux into the system must vanish.