By Rebecca M. Jordan-Young
Male and female brains are varied, because of hormones coursing in the course of the mind prior to start. That's taught as truth in psychology textbooks, educational journals, and bestselling books. And those hardwired modifications clarify every thing from sexual orientation to gender id, to why there aren't extra girls physicists or extra stay-at-home dads.
In this compelling ebook, Rebecca Jordan-Young takes at the facts that intercourse changes are hardwired into the mind. examining almost all released learn that helps the claims of "human mind association theory," Jordan-Young unearths how usually those experiences fail the criteria of technological know-how. whether cautious researchers indicate the boundaries in their personal reviews, different researchers and reporters can simply forget about them simply because mind association thought simply sounds so correct. but when a sequence of methodological weaknesses, questionable assumptions, inconsistent definitions, and large gaps among ambiguous findings and grand conclusions have gathered over the years, then technological know-how isn't medical at all.
Elegantly written, this booklet argues passionately that the research of gender adjustments merits way more rigorous, biologically refined technology. "The proof for hormonal intercourse differentiation of the human mind higher resembles a hodge-podge pile than a superior structure...Once now we have cleared the rubble, we will be able to start to construct more recent, extra clinical tales approximately human development."
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Additional info for Brain Storm: The Flaws in the Science of Sex Differences
William Young and his graduate students Charles Phoenix, Robert Goy, and Arnold Gerall repeated the experiment with control animals, which was especially important, they said, because among guinea pigs, “most normal females display male-like mounting as a part of the estrous reaction” (Young, Goy, and Phoenix 1965, 182). They observed, as Dantchakoff had before them, a marked in- Hormones and Hardwiring p 27 crease in so-called masculine behavior. They also observed a ﬁnding that Dantchakoff had not reported, namely, a lower incidence of lordosis, an arching of the back typically performed by fertile females that allows males to mount and penetrate them.
His inﬂuence on brain organization theory research in humans cannot be overestimated. 14 These suggestions ﬁrst appeared in a review article, “Inﬂuence of Hormones on Sexual Behavior” (Money 1965a), in which Money wove together observations that he and his colleagues had made about intersex patients, on the one hand, with nearly three dozen recent animal studies, on the other, in an effort to formulate a synthetic description of the role of hormones in the development of mammalian sexual behavior.
They also observed a ﬁnding that Dantchakoff had not reported, namely, a lower incidence of lordosis, an arching of the back typically performed by fertile females that allows males to mount and penetrate them. The report of this research suggested a new interpretive framework for understanding previous studies of hormones and sexual behavior: prenatal testosterone had “organized” the brain for masculine behavior. As biologist and historian of science Marianne van den Wijngaard has explained: “Here, organizing means that the effects are structural and permanent” (1997, 29).