By Peter Clark
This publication offers the 1st account of the increase of those such a lot special, common and robust of social associations in Georgian Britain. With roots within the early sleek period, British golf equipment and societies swept the rustic by way of 1800, after they numbered within the millions, and their effect maintains at the present time. taking a look at the advanced mosaic of golf equipment and societies, starting from freemasonry to bird-fancying, the writer considers the explanations for his or her winning improvement, their export to the USA and the colonies, and their influence on British Society.
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Extra resources for British Clubs and Societies 1580-1800: The Origins of an Associational World
Shropshire, Records of Early English Drama (Toronto, 1994), ii. 404. 99 14:59 02 Chapter 0394 32 Emergence other urban centres, especially in southern England, ceremonial activity was much less elaborate and public. Under government and Puritan pressure, old civic and communal rituals had increasingly disappeared by the late sixteenth century; but in some places civic traditions proved more resilient, albeit often metamorphosed into activities directly linked to the town oligarchy. At Chester, for instance, the Christmas watch, anciently against the Welsh, became an occasion for displaying civic power against internal disorder, and for elite processing.
50 G. Rosser, `SolidariteÂs et changement social. FraterniteÂs urbaines anglaises aÁ la ®n du Moyen AÃge', Annales ESC, 48 (1993), 1128; C. Barron, `The Parish Fraternities of Medieval London', in C. Barron and C. ), The Church in Pre-Reformation Society (Woodbridge, 1985), 13; J. J. Scarisbrick, The Reformation and the English People (Oxford, 1984), 28. 51 Barron, `Parish Fraternities', 29±31; Scarisbrick, Reformation, 22; B. A. Hanawalt, `Keepers of the Lights: Late Medieval English Parish Gilds', Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 14 (1984), 25; Rosser, `FraterniteÂs urbaines', 1138±9.
They had to struggle to establish and enlarge their footing in social and cultural life. Absence of a clear organizational model which new societies could copy, was one constraint. Another stemmed from state opposition, particularly before the calling of the Long Parliament, though of®cial hostility also obtruded after the Restoration. Finally, nascent clubs and societies 1 J. Evans, A History of the Society of Antiquaries (Oxford, 1956), 8±13; A. ), The Life and Times of Anthony Wood, Vol. , 19, (1891), 423.