By Terry Des Jardins
This cutting edge, best-selling e-book offers the main entire and exact information regarding the constitution and serve as of the breathing method. The relevance to breathing care perform sincerely units this source aside, with medical situations to problem your software of ideas and formulation in addition to a variety of illustrations of universal pathological stipulations resembling cystic fibrosis, power bronchitis, and bronchial asthma.
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Additional info for Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiology: Essentials for Respiratory Care, 5th Edition
The inferior border of the cricoid cartilage is attached to the first C-shaped cartilage of the trachea (see Figure 1–11). The paired arytenoid cartilages are shaped like a three-sided pyramid. The base of each arytenoid cartilage rests on the superior surface of the posterior portion of the cricoid cartilage. The apex of each arytenoid cartilage curves posteriorly and medially and flattens for articulation with the corniculate cartilages. At the base of each arytenoid cartilage is a projection called the vocal process.
Beyond the terminal bronchioles, the bronchial CHAPTER 1 The Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System 35 Figure 1–24 Cross-section of bronchial area. Note the rapid increase in the total cross-sectional area of the airways in the respiratory zone. Conducting zone Respiratory zone 500 Total cross-sectional area (cm 2) 400 300 23 20 200 15 100 10 5 0 Airway generation arteries lose their identity and merge with the pulmonary arteries and capillaries, which are part of the pulmonary vascular system.
The release of these chemical mediators causes increased vascular permeability, smooth-muscle contraction, increased mucous secretion, and vasodilation with edema. Such a reaction in the lungs can be extremely dangerous and is seen in individuals during an allergic asthmatic episode. The production of IgE antibodies may be 20 times greater than normal in some patients with CHAPTER 1 The Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System 29 Figure 1–19 Immunologic mechanisms. Antigen Peripheral lymphoid tissue IgE A Sensitized mast cell Histamine Heparin Smooth-muscle contraction SRS-A Antigen PAF B IgE interaction ECF-A Leukotrienes Asthma attack C asthma (the normal IgE antibody level in the serum is about 200 ng/mL).