By Renee Ann Cramer
Within the context of U.S.-Indian legislations, federal acknowledgment establishes a belief dating among an Indian tribe and the U.S. govt. because of that belief, the tribe gets major advantages, together with tax-exempt prestige, reclamation rights, and—of probably maximum modern day curiosity to the yankee public—the correct to manage and cash in on its personal casinos.
Some tribes, even if, haven't been federally stated, or, in additional universal language, “recognized.” In Cash, colour, and Colonialism, Renée Ann Cramer bargains a entire research of the federal acknowledgment method, putting it in old, criminal, and social context.
Exploring the formal and casual struggles over acknowledgment, Cramer argues that we can't totally comprehend the method till we comprehend 3 contexts in which it operates: the expansion of on line casino pursuits due to the fact 1988, the superiority of racial attitudes bearing on Indian identification, and the colonial legacy of U.S.-Indian law.
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Additional info for Cash, Color, And Colonialism: The Politics Of Tribal Acknowledgment
46 Ten years after Menominee, the Mississippi Choctaw brought a related suit with United States v. 47 This case questioned the role of the Sandoval precedent in the absence of explicit congressional Termination. The Mississippi Choctaw Tribe, though federally recognized, was considered a "remnant group"-a group of Indians that had successfully resisted removal from their homelands in the 1830s and had continued to live by Indian and tribal ways in isolation in Mississippi, doing so without many of the federal benefits that should have attended their status.
Removal was accomplished by military force, by treaty, by trickery, and by the inadvertent extermination of Indians through disease. Though this chapter offers a brief history of all major federal Indian programs, readers are cautioned that these comments are generalizations made about federal programs and Indian responses, and that several excellent works exist that discuss particular programs and particular tribal nations and regions. Attention to these particular tribal nations, regions, and programs is vitally important but outside the scope of this chapter.
Section 19 of the IRA involves government definitions of Indians for the purposes of IRA elections. It reads, in part: The term "Indian" as used in this Act shall include all persons of Indian descent who are members of any recognized Indian tribe now under Federal jurisdiction, and all persons who are descendants of such members who were, on June 1, 1934, residing within the present boundaries of any reservation, and shall further include all other persons of one-half or more Indian blood. Progressives championed the IRA as furthering Indian self-government.