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By T. M. Cook, D. J. Cullen

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This type is often employed as a vacuum p u m p or as an air or gas p u m p (usually called a compressor), and in many cases as a metering p u m p because of the fixed volume discharged per stroke. There are many types of valve used in reciprocating p u m p s : simple dead-weight balls, slide valves, spring plates, or poppet valves. It must be emphasized that reciprocating pumps are designed for particular duties and are not versatile. A p u m p or compressor designed to handle a gas would be arranged with a very small clearance above its piston and would not be capable of handling relatively incompressible liquids.

The detailed design of a heat exchanger is influenced mainly by the type of liquids being used, the temperature difference between them and the quantity of liquids flowing. FIG. 4. Single-pass condenser. With the single-pass condenser, illustrated in Fig. 4, the coolant (usually water) passes through the tubes and the hot vapour is fed into the top of the outer shell. Condensate drains away from the bottom of the shell. It is possible to arrange the tubes and the "header" or end covers so that the water enters only one bank of tubes from the "inlet header" 42 Chemical Plant and its Operation and returns down another bank from the opposite header.

Recuperators are usually employed to heat an incoming fluid with waste heat from a process. F o r example a waste-heat boiler is, in principle, a heat exchanger using the waste heat from probably a blast furnace to evaporate water to steam. In other cases recuperators heat incoming fluid and cool outgoing fluid simultaneously. On a steamgenerating plant flue gases are often used in economizers to heat the feed water to the boiler. Heating bundles are heat exchangers fitted to the bottom section of a still or reboiler, through which steam or hot gases are passed to increase the temperature of the feed These are often "hairpin" tubes making one loop so that the bundle requires only one connection in the still.

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