By Alan Siaroff
This publication offers a complete research of the occasion platforms of the full continent of Europe. This paintings additionally contains case reviews of the Baltic States and Balkan democracies and is going as a ways east as Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, and Turkey.
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Additional info for Comparative European Party Systems: An Analysis of Parliamentary Elections Since 1945
This is not a numerical value, but rather a two-letter code indicating how decisive the particular elections were. One of the following results is given: HP=hung parliament (no party with a majority of seats); EM=earned majority (a party with a majority of both seats and votes); or MM=manufactured majority (a party with a majority of seats but not a majority of votes). FP—Formation Period. This value is the number of days after the elections until a new cabinet fully takes office. As discussed in Chapter 5, under a system of positive parliamentarianism a government must first be confirmed by the legislature before it can actually assume power, even if it has already been sworn in by the head of state.
5) were Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Turkey. 0). Sweden is thus an illustrative case of evolution to greater complexity: in the 1960s it had no appreciable divisions on religiosity, foreign policy, or postmaterialism, but now it has these. 6 Issue Dimensions in the 1960s 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Religion Regional/cultural/ethnic Religiosity Urban-rural Regime support 6. 7. 8. 9. Nationalism/xenophobia Socio-economic Foreign policy Postmaterialism 24 Comparative European Party Systems POLITICAL PARTICIPATION The final overall way in which these polities differ is in terms of political participation.
4. 5. 6. Agrarian or center party Liberal or radical party 7. Regional or ethnic party Conservative party Socialist or social-democratic party 8. Right-wing extremist party 9. Ecology or new-left party Communist party 10. 4 Continued As can be seen, social democratic parties exist almost everywhere. However, other types of parties are more limited. In particular, it is rare to have both a conservative and a Christian democratic party, and basically impossible to have both a large conservative and a large Christian democratic party.