By Phillip M. Boiselle, David Lynch
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2005. Anatomy and development of the respiratory tract. In Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, Murray JF and Nadel JA, editors. Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, 4th ed. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia. 3–25. 7. Kuhn C. 1988. Normal anatomy and histology. In Thurlbeck WM, editor. Pathology of the Lung. Thieme, New York. 11–45. 8. Barnes PJ. 2005. General pharmacologic principles. In Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, Murray JF and Nadel JA, editors. Murray and Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia.
3. Moore KL, Dalley AF. 2006. Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. 4. Garcia JGN, Malik AB. 2005. Pulmonary circulation and regulation of fluid balance. In Mason RJ, Broaddus VC, Murray JF and Nadel JA, editors. Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, 4th ed. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia. 138–139. 5. Grillo HC. 2000. Surgical anatomy of the trachea and techniques of resection. In Shields TW, Locicero J and Ponin RB, editors. General Thoracic Surgery, 5th ed.
Normal expiratory air trapping. CT obtained at end-expiration shows multiple lobules of air trapping (arrowheads) Because these papers indicate that air trapping may be found on expiratory CT in normal subjects (Fig. 17), clinical interpretation of air trapping found on CT must consider the extent of abnormality, associated CT findings of mosaic attenuation or bronchial abnormalities, and physiologic evidence of obstruction. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr. Robert C. Gilkeson for his outstanding illustrations and descriptions of upper airway anatomy.