By José Ignacio de Arana
¿Sabía usted que el tabaco fue recomendado con entusiasmo durante muchos siglos por las autoridades sanitarias por considerarse una planta medicinal y prácticamente milagrosa para curar todo tipo de men? ¿Que el nombre hígado proviene de l. a. pasión del romano Apicio por el rico sabor del hígado de los gansos alimentados con higos e hidromiel? ¿Que las endorfinas, las responsables de las sensaciones más placenteras para el ser humano, reciben este nombre por su similitud con los angeles morfina y que su producción se puede estimular mediante el café, el chocolate o el sexo? ¿Sabía usted que el hongo que salvó el mundo fue descubierto de manera informal por Alexander Fleming y que posteriormente sería bautizado como penicilina?
El prestigioso health practitioner José Ignacio de Arana, autor de grandes éxitos como Diga treinta y tres o Grandes polvos de los angeles historia, nos sorprende con un recorrido divertidísimo y poco convencional por l. a. historia de l. a. medicina para aprender todo lo que creías saber sobre esta ciencia pero que no conocías.
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If one insists, however, that every real element must have its individual and determinate unity, such a view becomes problematic, insofar as matter will have its being and unity from itself. Note that corollaries I and II echo those developments in Scholastic concepts which made room, beyond the hylemorphic view, for matter as it came to be considered by the science of the ‘moderns’. The alternative to the holistic view above cannot help being a ‘combinatorial’ view, where the whole is the sum of its parts: therefore, the identity of a complex substance will be wholly deﬁned by its constituents.
1 194–195 (GP IV 64–65). For this historical background of Leibniz’s combinatorial project, see Paolo Rossi, The Twisted Roots of Leibniz’s Characteristica, in The Leibniz Renaissance. Firenze: Olschky, T 1989, 271–289. 1, 193 (GP IV 63). CHAPTER 2. A WORLD OF CONCEPTS 35 he is programmatically introducing his own version of combinatorics, he relies on Hobbes’s dictum about thought conceived of as a calculus. Now, the theory of the De Corpore—whose inﬂuence on the DAC is not conﬁned to that suggestion—is really an outstanding example of how the model of an analytical-synthetic universal science of concepts could well coexist with the Particularist Claim.
The prominent exponent of the third stage is Thomas Hobbes, who is labeled and criticized as ‘ultra-nominalist’, however, for the conventionalist drift of his nominalism. 2 The core thesis of ‘nominalism’ is identiﬁed here with a decided ‘Particularist Claim’: all that exists (or can exist) is particular. In a particularist ontology, there is no room for universal or abstract items, which are to be accounted for as ways of speaking (names), or at most ways of thinking (concepts) about particulars.