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Extra info for Diagnostic Techniques in Equine Medicine. A textbook for students and practitioners describing diagnostic techniques applicable to the adult horse
4 A mouth speculum (Haussman gag). the assistant standing at that side or fastened to a ring on the head collar, depending upon the design. Use of a full dental speculum This is a more sophisticated instrument, which is applied over the head collar (Fig. 4). Two plates rest on the incisor tables and are moved apart by a ratchet system, which prises the jaws to the required distance and then locks the position (Fig. 5). The speculum allows the maximum amount of room for examination and/or manipulation within the mouth and can be released readily.
However, views of the thoracic oesopha32 gus behind the shoulder are also possible with portable equipment. Technique Radiographs of the oesophagus can be obtained in the conscious standing animal. Sedation may be used if necessary, although this will tend to alter oesophageal motility. The cassette is suspended against the side of the horse as described above for oropharyngeal radiography. Multiple exposures are needed to cover the length of the oesophagus. The exposure factors will also vary along the length of the oesophagus according to the amount of soft tissue present at the various levels.
External examination An external examination of the mouth is made by standing to the side of the animal, facing forwards, Alimentary diseases 2 and separating the lips with both hands to reveal the labial mucosa and incisor teeth. The colour of the mucous membranes is noted together with the presence of abnormal features such as petechial or ecchymotic haemorrhages. g. parrot mouth), deciduous teeth, supernumerary teeth or undue wear due to crib-biting or poor grazing (chronic close cropping at the soil surface).