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By Professor Taira Suzuki, Professor Shin Takeuchi, Professor Hideo Yoshinaga (auth.)

In the Fifties the direct commentary of dislocations grew to become attainable, stimulat­ ing the curiosity of many learn staff within the dynamics of dislocations. This resulted in significant contributions to the knowledge of the plasticity of assorted crys­ talline fabrics. in this time the research of metals and alloys of fcc and hcp constructions built remarkably. particularly, the invention of the so-called in­ ertial impact brought on by the electron and phonon frictional forces significantly stimulated the quantitative realizing of the energy of those metal fabrics. Statis­ tical reports of dislocations relocating via random arrays of element hindrances performed a big function within the above advances. those subject matters are defined in Chaps. 2-4. Metals and alloys with bcc constitution have huge Peierls forces in comparison to people with fcc constitution. the explanations for the hold up in learning elements with bcc constitution have been more often than not problems attached with the purification thoughts and with microscopic experiences of the dislocation middle. within the Nineteen Seventies, those problems have been principally conquer by way of advancements in experimental thoughts and laptop physics. reports of dislocations in ionic and covalent bonding fabrics with huge Peierls forces supplied infonnation in regards to the middle constructions of dislocations and their digital interactions with charged debris. those are the most matters in Chaps. 5-7.

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3. 4. 16]. Writing Tc in this range of temperatures as 7'lJ, which is called the plateau stress, we can plot TO as in Fig. 1 I Haasen et al. plotted 7ll against Cll3 in their original papers. We have replotted their data against cl/2 , however. Which of the two c dependences of 7lJ is to be preferred can hardly be determined from their data. 17% i '1 E = 4 X 10-'5- 1 Calculated Z .. -I X 00 1 0> 50 u .... S. 4,5]. Anomalous behavior of yield stress at low temperatures, below lOOK, is due to the decrease of the phonon frictional force.

This is because the thennal activation process is based on probability theory and, accordingly, we cannot describe it by using the probability of overcoming a barrier at a definite time such as t = 7r /wo. 22). 55 Meanwhile, we have only been concerned with the electron frictional coefficient Be so far in the above theory. Similar discussion is possible for the phonon frictional coefficient B p , which is able to explain the loss of strength observed in solid solutions below Tp. 18), may depend upon B.

29], however, IlL does not depend upon B as long as B ~ 2Awe, where We is the angular frequency of the dislocation at the top of the potential due to an obstacle. 2 Excitation of Quasiparticies by Moving Dislocations and Anomalous Strain-Rate Sensitivity of B. When a dislocation moves at high speed, two excited electrons (quasiparticles) may be formed by the collision with a Cooper pair in the ground state. This process should be accompanied by loss of kinetic energy of the dislocation to induce a new frictional term.

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