By Michael E. Groher PhD, Michael A. Crary PhD F-ASHA
Get all of the details you must hopefully deal with dysphagia in expert perform with Dysphagia: scientific administration in Adults and kids, second Edition! This logically prepared, evidence-based source displays the most recent developments in dysphagia in an approachable and trouble-free demeanour that will help you grasp the scientific assessment and diagnostic decision-making strategies. New insurance of the newest insights and examine besides improved details on little one and baby swallowing might help organize you for the stipulations you’ll face within the scientific environment. Plus, the reasonable case eventualities and distinctive evaluation questions threaded during the booklet may help you increase the medical reasoning talents wanted for pro good fortune.
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Additional info for Dysphagia: Clinical Management in Adults and Children, 2e
The palatopharyngeus muscle draws the velum down. The cricopharyngeal muscle is an important single muscle that lies at the transition level between the pharynx and the esophagus. Functionally, it is separate from both the pharynx and the esophagus and acts as a sphincter, relaxing during passage of the bolus from the pharynx into the esophagus. It is innervated by both pharyngeal branches of the vagus and sympathetic fibers from the middle and inferior cervical ganglia. The key muscles used in the oral and pharyngeal stages of swallowing are shown in Figure 2-4.
The primary receptors of taste are located on the tongue, on the hard and soft palate, in the pharynx, and in the supralaryngeal region. The receptors are activated by saliva. Saliva is produced by the activation of the submandibular, submaxillary (autonomic aspects of CN VII), and parotid glands (autonomic aspects of CN IX). Activation of these glands is achieved by the actions of the jaw, tongue, and hyoid bone during bolus preparation and by the inherent taste of the bolus. The primary sensory receptors on the dorsum of the tongue responsible for the perception of salt, sweet, sour, and bitter are activated by saliva.
Sinus n. Int. laryng. n. Rec. laryng. n. 86 CLINICAL CASE EXAMPLE 2-1 An 86-year-old man recently had heart surgery. After surgery he had a stroke affecting the premotor cortex of the left hemisphere. The man has a past history of depression treated with an antidepressant. He also had a history of Bell’s palsy that affected CN VII in the upper and lower half of the left side of his face. He presented to the clinician with dysphagia. On examination the patient reported difficulty chewing and stated that food did not taste good.