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By Noburu Kinosita

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30 Defining the meaning of the subjunctive If the subordinated clause expresses someone else’s attitude, the indicative sounds more acceptable, even though the norm calls for the subjunctive: • ? Dudo que (Juan) puede (IND) estar a las cinco. ] After ‘I hope’ and ‘I am afraid’ American speakers prefer the future tense with the auxiliary will because the content of the dependent clause is in the future: • • Espero que venga (SUB) a verme mañana. → I hope s/he will come see me tomorrow. Siento que venga (SUB) a verme mañana.

I am afraid s/he will come see me tomorrow. None of the following variations are usually accepted: • • • • • • • • *I hope s/he come see me tomorrow. *I hope s/he comes see me tomorrow. *I hope that s/he comes see me tomorrow. I hope that s/he will come see me tomorrow. *I am afraid s/he come see me tomorrow. *I am afraid s/he comes see me tomorrow. *I am afraid that s/he comes see me tomorrow. I am afraid that s/he will come see me tomorrow. This would suggest that the content of the subordinated clause after I hope and I am afraid in English is understood as a declaration of the main speaker/subject rather than a wish for something uncertain to happen.

30 Defining the meaning of the subjunctive If the subordinated clause expresses someone else’s attitude, the indicative sounds more acceptable, even though the norm calls for the subjunctive: • ? Dudo que (Juan) puede (IND) estar a las cinco. ] After ‘I hope’ and ‘I am afraid’ American speakers prefer the future tense with the auxiliary will because the content of the dependent clause is in the future: • • Espero que venga (SUB) a verme mañana. → I hope s/he will come see me tomorrow. Siento que venga (SUB) a verme mañana.

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