Download Elementary Mathematics from a Higher Standpoint: Volume I: by Felix Klein (auth.) PDF

By Felix Klein (auth.)

​These 3 volumes represent the 1st entire English translation of Felix Klein’s seminal sequence “Elementarmathematik vom höheren Standpunkte aus”. “Complete” has a twofold which means right here: First, there now exists a translation of quantity III into English, whereas until eventually this present day the single translation were into chinese language. moment, the English models of quantity I and II had passed over numerous, even extendedparts of the unique, whereas we now current a whole revised translation into glossy English.

The volumes, first released among 1902 and 1908, are lecture notes of classes that Klein provided to destiny arithmetic lecturers, understanding a brand new kind of instructor education that remained legitimate and potent till at the present time: Klein leads the scholars to achieve a extra complete and methodological viewpoint on university arithmetic. The volumes let us to appreciate Klein’s far-reaching notion of elementarisation, of the “elementary from a better standpoint”, in its implementation for college mathematics.

This quantity I is dedicated to what Klein calls the 3 immense “A’s”: mathematics, algebra and research. they're awarded and mentioned consistently including a measurement of geometric interpretation and visualisation - given his epistemological point of view of arithmetic being established in house instinct. a very revealing instance for elementarisation is his bankruptcy at the transcendence of e and p, the place he succeeds in giving concise but good available proofs for the transcendence of those numbers. it truly is during this quantity that Klein makes his recognized assertion in regards to the double discontinuity among arithmetic educating at colleges and at universities – it used to be his significant objective to beat this discontinuity.

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Extra resources for Elementary Mathematics from a Higher Standpoint: Volume I: Arithmetic, Algebra, Analysis

Sample text

The presentation is, to be sure, rather abstract than intuitive. 3. Irrational Numbers 33 I shall now close this discussion of fractions with a general remark concerning the totality of rational numbers, where, for the sake of clearness, I shall make use of the representation upon a straight line. Think of all points with rational abscissas marked upon this line; we designate them briefly as rational points. We say, then, that the totality of these rational points on the axis of abscissas is “dense”, meaning that in every interval, however small, there are still infinitely many rational points.

In fact, mathematics has grown like a tree, which does not start at its tiniest rootlets and grows merely upward, but rather sends its roots deeper and deeper at the same time and rate that its branches and leaves are spreading upward. Just so – if we may drop the figure of speech – mathematics began its development from a certain standpoint corresponding to normal human understanding, and has progressed, from that point, according [17] to the demands of science itself and of the then prevailing interests, now in the one direction toward new knowledge, now in the other through the study of fundamental 18 I.

It is, as you see, the exact mechanical translation of the customary process of written multiplication, in which one writes down under one another, the products of the multiplicand by the successive digits of the multiplier, each product moved to the left one place farther than the preceding, and then adds. In just the same way one proceeds quite generally when the multiplier has three or more digits, that is, after the usual multiplication by the ones, one moves the slide 1; 2; : : : places to the right and turns the handle in each place as many times as the digit in the tens, hundreds, .

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