Download Essentials of Animal Physiology, 4th Edition by S.C. Rastogi PDF

By S.C. Rastogi

This identify covers body structure of organ platforms of animals, together with human and mammalian body structure. It surveys sensible specialisation of organisms and their survival skill lower than environmental stresses. It explains standards of physiological diversifications between organisms residing in diversified habitats. It comprises new assurance on animal calorimetry to give an explanation for strength specifications of animals. It has in-depth insurance of membrane body structure. It contains a new bankruptcy on physiological problems emanating from organellar malfunctions and genetic disabilities.

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Thus, under the primary structure we have considered the amino acid sequence. Each amino acid is linked with its immediate neighbour by peptide bonds. The peptide bonds are the primary and strongest linkages. Secondary Structure of Proteins In addition to the above mentioned primary structure the biological activity of protein also depends on the secondary structure. Under the secondary structure of protein we consider the structural aspects like folding of the polypeptide chains into a specific coiled structure arising as a result of the linkage of amino acid units which are not far from each other, as in the a-helix.

Heterochromatic bands are formed of both DNA and RNA. During mitosis the chromosome is longitudinally sub-divided into two chromatids. Each of the two chromatids is composed of paired filaments called chromonema. The chromosome has a region of constriction called kinetochore. Based on its position the chromosomes can be identified as acrocentric, metacentric and submetacentric types. During cell division the kinetochores are subjected to the pulling influence of the spindle fibres. There are several hypotheses over the fine structure of the chromosome.

NH2 OH PURINES C C N N N C N C C C C H C C N N H H2N C H N C Adenine H Guanine H PYRIMIDINES NH2 O C O C CH N H Cytosine Fig. 12 C C CH N O C—CH3 HN O C CH N H Thymine HN O CH CH C N H Uracil Chemical structure of purines and pyrimidines. The pentose sugar molecules form a part of the nucleic acids and they exist in the form of a ring. The sugar gets attached either to a purine, or to a pyrimidine base forming a nucleoside. The base attaches to the carbon of the pentose sugar. e. the phosphate group gets attached with one arm to the fifth position of the pentose sugar to form a nucleotide.

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