By J. Kranz, J. Rotem (auth.), Prof. Dr. Jürgen Kranz, Prof. Dr. Joseph Rotem (eds.)
Most books on epidemiology have taken care of the topic from a statistical, mathematical or desktop applicational standpoint. in spite of the fact that, experiments needs to be played first to supply the knowledge for types which in flip can then be confirmed through additional experimentation. This mutual interaction of idea and empirics provides epidemiology its clinical thrust and grace. This e-book offers a call of equipment for various functions and goals, masking all vital features for the designing of experiments. additionally, the reader is provided with recommendations to his experimental difficulties and lots of "tricks of the trade". The newcomer to the sector also will revenue via this system guide.
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Additional resources for Experimental Techniques in Plant Disease Epidemiology
The difference obtained in the field between the temperature of the upper leaf side (exposed to the sun) and the lower side (protected from the sun), and between the outer and inner leaves in the plant canopy, is normally absent in the controlled habitat. Some CC instruments are equipped with programmers and cycle the environmental conditions between given minima and maxima of temperature and humidity. The most sophisticated instruments have computerized control programs for simulation of various patterns of weather during the experimental period.
1). Cultivation in small pots speeds up ageing, and the physiological age of plants grown in this way differs from that of plants grown in the field. Potted plants also produce less yield, and this prevents application of the CC techniques to studies of crop losses. When the researcher is tempted to obtain quick results, and considers the limitation ofspace in CC habitats, he tends to work with small and young, rather than with larger and adult plants, despite a possible difference in the reactions of plants of various ages.
Temperature rather than humidity is the main factor studied, and its effect is evaluated according to symptom development. However, symptoms do not necessarily indicate the colonizing ability of the pathogen. In many pathosystems high incubation temperature may inhibit the pathogen, but enhance the necrotic reaction. In contrast, low temperature may inhibit lesion 26 Joseph Rotem development despite satisfactory development of the pathogen. In both cases the effect of the temperature on colonization is indicated by the area from which spores emerge, rather than by lesion size per se.