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By Svend Lausten, Claus Madsen, Richard M. West (auth.)

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Note here the rows of faint blue knots along the spiral arms, and which are areas of recent star formation. 46 NGC 7496 is an SBc galaxy with two arms, which tend to split up in certain areas. Here too there are many blue areas of star formation. NGC 5236 (or M 83) is an impressive spiral that has been classified as SBc. It has two main arms with a large number of branches. Some of the branches are attached almost at right angles to the main arms. This object was included as No. 83 in the catalogue of Charles Messier (1730-1817), a French astronomer and famous comet hunter.

But a closer look reveals that it is possible to trace small sections of spiral arms. NGC 4945 has been classified as an Sc galaxy seen at a steep angle, although not quite edge-on. 36 ESO 60 - IG23 is a spiral galaxy seen almost edge-on. The absorbing effect of the material in the disk is very clear, but a part of the disk is seen in emission like the nuclear bulge. This is one of the nearly 12000 southern galaxies that were found during the first ESO photographic survey, and which were not contained in any other catalogue of galaxies.

One such cluster is at the very centre of N 119. Its brightest star is S Doradus, a very hot and luminous supergiant. The region is clearly one of recent star formation, and emission nebulosity might be expected here. But the shape of N 119 is surprising and cannot be easily explained. It may possibly be the result of one or more supernova explosions, but this hypothesis is not supported by radio observations. Or it may perhaps consist of interstellar material swept together by strong stellar Plate 55 54 Plate 56 winds blowing from S Doradus and other stars in the cluster.

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