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By Peter S. Bellwood

"The first ebook to stipulate the advanced international tale of human migration and dispersal during the complete of human prehistory. using archaeological, linguistic and organic proof, Peter Bellwood strains the trips of the earliest hunter-gatherer and agriculturalist migrants as serious components within the evolution of human lifeways. the 1st quantity to chart international human migration and inhabitants dispersal in the course of the entire of human prehistory, in all areas of the area An archaeological odyssey that info the preliminary unfold of early people out of Africa nearly million years in the past, throughout the Ice a long time, and right down to the continental and island migrations of agricultural populations in the prior 10,000 years Employs archaeological, linguistic and organic facts to illustrate how migration has continually been an important and intricate aspect in explaining the evolution of the human species Outlines how major migrations have affected inhabitants variety in each area of the area Clarifies the significance of the improvement of agriculture as a migratory vital in later prehistory totally referenced with distinctive maps all through "

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Hung et al. 2011. This claim has generated some debate (Hung et al. 2012; Winter et al. 2012; Carson et al. 2013), but the archaeological record is in strong support. Bellwood 2001, 2005a; Bellwood and Renfrew 2002. Scally and Durbin 2012. Both Griffith 1996: 377, footnote 11, and Cunliffe 2008: 264 assert that the Araxes of Herodotus was the Volga River, in accordance with the Pontic steppes view of Indo-European linguistic origins which I discuss in Chapter 7. However, the original Greek text of Herodotus refers unambiguously to the Araxes (Elizabeth Minchin, ANU, pers.

The Relevance and Reality of Ancient Migration 13 However, the ethnographic examples, even if small in scale on a global canvas, can certainly tell us something useful about motives for migration in kinship-based ┬şcircumstances. In terms of fundamental economic causes, the Nuer expansion was fuelled by demands for cattle-grazing land, and those of the Iban and Yanomami by demands for crop lands (the Yanomami grow bananas and manioc). Additional behavioral and social persuasions that assisted these migrations operated through bride-price payments in the case of the Nuer, polygyny in the case of the Yanomami, and headhunting prowess and the instilling of fear in subjugated groups in the case of the Iban.

Remarkably, the spreads of all major language families to their precolonial era limits, of hunter-gatherer and agriculturalist populations alike, occurred in full and absolute prehistory. None of the initiations, spreads, and early histories of the major language families of the world are recorded in documentary history at all. Even Greek and Latin only underwent fairly trivial episodes of spread very late in the remarkable history of the Indo-European language family. Akkadian/Babylonian and Ancient Egyptian were little more than branches on the margins of the much vaster Afroasiatic language family.

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