Download First Steps in Seismic Interpretation by Donald Herron PDF

By Donald Herron

Basics of Geophysical Interpretation is a realistic guide for the petroleum geophysicist. primary recommendations are defined utilizing heuristic descriptions of seismic modeling, deconvolution, intensity migration, and tomography. Pitfalls in processing and contouring are defined in short. functions comprise petroleum exploration of carbonate reefs, salt intrusions, and overthrust faults. The ebook contains prior, current, and attainable destiny advancements in time-lapse seismology, borehole geophysics, multicomponent seismology, and built-in reservoir characterization.
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They are also used to illustrate data quality (see Chapter 9). Two of the most commonly used seismic attributes are amplitude and coherence. Amplitude The reference or baseline value for the amplitude of reflection seismic data is zero; so amplitudes are positive or negative in accordance with agreed polarity and display conventions, as discussed in Chapter 2. In terms of the simple two-layer model shown in Figure 1 of Chapter 2, the magnitude and algebraic sign (positive or negative) of the amplitude of a reflection from a single, isolated acoustic-impedance (AI) boundary is directly proportional to the magnitude and algebraic sign of the reflection coefficient (RC) at that boundary; the convolutional model (Figure 9 of Chapter 2) extends this relationship to the general case of the composite seismic response to a reflection coefficient series.

Second, areas of washed-out borehole allow the signal to travel through the mud rather than the formation, so correlation between slow velocity and large borehole size indicates that the measured velocity probably is too slow. This commonly occurs below a casing shoe or in salt. Finally, fracturing and invasion of porous formations can cause the measured velocity to be different from that of the undisturbed rock. This occurs particularly in gas-bearing formations where the mud filtrate tends to invade the rock and remove the low-velocity effect of the gas.

A) Raw and NMO-corrected CDP gather from Figure 13 with near- and far-half CDP gathers and their associated near-trace and far-trace partial stacks. The near-stack and far-stack displays represent the single near-half and far-half stacked traces, respectively, which have been duplicated 10 times for visual effect. The red box outlines the area enlarged in (b). (b) Enlargement from (a) showing the difference in reflection character between the near-trace and far-trace partial stacks for the NMO-corrected gather.

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