By Ganslandt, Hoffman
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Extra resources for Handbook Of Interior Lighting Design E
E. the luminance of a surface varies. The illuminated side of a unicoloured object has a higher luminance than the side that receives no direct light; a black object in sunlight shows a considerably higher level of luminance than a white object in an interior space. If perception depended on seen luminance, the luminous reflectance would not be recognised as a constant property of an object. A mechanism is required that determines the luminous reflectance of a surface from the ratio of the luminances of this surface to its surroundings.
Adapting from dark to light situations occurs relatively rapidly, whereas adapting from light to darkness requires a considerably longer time. A good example of this is how bright we find it outside having come out of a dark cinema auditorium during the daytime, or the transitory period of night blindness we experience when entering a very dark room. Both the fact that contrast in luminance can only be processed by the eye within a certain range, plus the fact that it takes time to adapt to a new level of lighting, or brightness, have an impact on lighting design: the purposeful planning of different luminance grades within a space, for example, or when adjusting lighting levels in adjacent spaces.
2 Perceptual psychology Law of gestalt relating to proximity. Luminaires are grouped in pairs. An initial and essential principle of the perception of gestalt, is the tendency to interpret closed forms as a figure. Closed forms need not possess a continuous contour. Elements arranged close together are grouped according to another law of gestalt, the law of proximity, and form a figure. The example on the left demonstrates that we first see a circle and then an arrangement of luminaires. The circles are arranged in such a strict order that the imaginary linking lines between them is not straight, but forms a circle; the resulting shape is not a polygon but a perfect circle.