By Alon Y. Avidan MD MPH, Phyllis C. Zee MD PhD
This pocket-sized guide is a realistic advisor to the overview and administration of sleep problems. it really is written by way of unique sleep medication specialists and covers a huge, multidisciplinary variety of subject matters in neurology, pulmonary medication, psychiatry, and pediatrics.
Chapters supply a vast advent to sleep disturbances and linked comorbidities and talk about the key sleep issues when it comes to epidemiology, diagnostic standards, differential prognosis, evaluation instruments, administration, and follow-up. Of designated worth are algorithms that offer a logical method of comparing sleep-related proceedings. All chapters adhere to the hot foreign type of Sleep problems (ICSD-2), that is defined in an appendix with ICD-9 codes.
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Additional resources for Handbook of Sleep Medicine
In general, however, the efficacy of BzRAs is largely related to their half-life and time to onset of action. Benzodiazepines approved for the treatment of insomnia include the longer-acting agents flurazepam, temazepam, quazepam, and estazolam. , decreasing wakefulness after sleep onset) in both subjective reports and objective studies. 37 Triazolam, with a shorter half-life, is primarily effective for promoting sleep onset rather than sleep maintenance. 38 Benzodiazepines have also been reported to alter normal sleep architecture.
Its secretion is inhibited by light, so that it effectively indicates the length of the night across the changing seasons. Melatonin serves as a modulator of circadian rhythms and of seasonal behaviors (such as reproduction) in some animals. When administered to humans, it seems to promote sleep induction and lower body temperature67,68 but has not been found to increase total sleep time consistently. Melatonin also has the ability to produce phase shifts in the underlying circadian rhythm,69 which may make it helpful in treating advanced or delayed sleep phase syndromes, jet lag, or adjustment to shift work.
5 54 Drowsiness, dizziness, tremor, agitation, asthenia, extrapyramidal symptoms, dry mouth, dyspepsia, constipation, orthostatic hypotension, weight gain, new-onset diabetes mellitus Sleep latency: â WASO: â to â Slow-wave sleep (%): â to â REM %: â Sleep latency: â Drowsiness, dizziness, dyskinesias, dry mouth, epigastric distress, constipation, tachycardia Drowsiness, dizziness, asthenia, dry mouth, dyspepsia, constipation, orthostatic hypotension, weight gain, new-onset diabetes mellitus. 5 empirically determined Dosages not Insufficient empirically data determined Sleep latency: â Slow-wave sleep %: â to â REM %: â to â Concentration difficulty, dizziness, fatigue, headache, irritability Reported adverse effects are rare are recommended maximum amounts for a single dose.