By Michel Soustelle
This booklet offers all of the theoretical and useful basements of heterogeneous kinetics and reactivity of solids. It applies the hot options of reactivity and spatial functionality, brought through the writer, for either nucleation and progress processes, with a unified presentation of the reactivity of bulk and powder solids, together with gas-solid reactions, thermal decompositions, solid-solid reactions, reactions of stable ideas, and coalescence of sturdy grains. It additionally contains many workouts and issues of suggestions incorporated, permitting readers to appreciate and use the entire options and strategies mentioned therein.
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Extra info for Heterogeneous Kinematics Handbook
As a matter of fact, these elements constitute the intermediate compounds produced and consumed by the steps of the mechanism and they are as important for the reactivity of solids as are the radicals and ions for organic chemistry. In the majority of crystallized mineral solids, the concept of molecule does not have any physical reality. For example, if we consider zinc oxide, whose formula is written as ZnO, we cannot ascribe a particular oxygen atom to a given zinc atom. Moreover, many solids present defects, compared to a crystal, which we could describe as ideal and made up of zinc ions and oxygen ions regularly arranged in space.
A more striking example, without being the only one, is the one of the oxidation of tantalum by oxygen in which by always obtaining the same oxide between 100°C and 600°C, a succession of laws can be noted: reciprocal logarithmic, logarithmic, cubic, parabolic, and finally linear laws for the highest temperatures. These two types of influences can be integrated in an overall model. 2. Influence of partial pressures of gases For many years, researchers did not worry about the influence of gas pressures in gas-solid reactions, admitting implicitly that speed was necessarily proportional to the number of shocks of gas molecules on surface per unit of time and thus proportional to the pressure.
2. Curves of evolution: experimental obtaining There is no experimental method that makes it possible to directly measure the extent, the fractional extent, and the speed or the rate of a system while it evolves. It 18 Handbook of Heterogenous Kinetics is necessary to use indirect methods of measurements of data. There are several methods that are used for different cases. 1. Thermogravimetry Thermogravimetry (or TGA) [HAI 02] is the uninterrupted weighing of a monoor multi-phase solid sample, heated in a given gas atmosphere.