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By Edward Farr

Basic Books book date: 2009 unique book date: 1850 unique writer: Robert Carter topics: Iran heritage / common historical past / center East / normal Notes: it is a black and white OCR reprint of the unique. It has no illustrations and there's typos or lacking textual content. if you purchase the final Books variation of this publication you get unfastened trial entry to the place you could choose between greater than 1000000 books at no cost. Excerpt: bankruptcy II. TOPOGRAPHICAL background OF PERSIA. within the a number of provinces of the huge empire of Persia, there have been a number of vital towns and cities ; yet bearing on a lot of them, no specified info has been passed all the way down to us by means of old writers. All, for that reason, that may be performed in those pages, is to note these of which any account, and any continues to be, have survived the damage of a long time, and which have been of the best observe. between those stands pre-eminently ahead, the town of PEESEPOLIS, which stood in the province of Persia. town of Persepolis is pointed out by way of Greek writers, after the period of Alexander, because the capital of Persia. The identify, even if, doesn't ensue within the writings of Herodotus, Ctesias, Xenophon, or Nehemiah, who have been good conversant in the opposite imperative towns of the Persian empire, and who make widespread point out of Susa, Babylon, and Ecbatana. yet this can be accounted for by means of the very fact, that Persepolis by no means looks to were a spot of place of abode for the Persian kings, although it used to be considered as the capital in their empire within the remotest a long time. there was a lot dispute respecting the Persian identify of Persepolis. in response to oriental historians, it used to be Istak- her, or. Estekhar; and lots of sleek authors feel that Persepolis and Pasagardoe, the typical burial-places of the kings of Persia, are just diversified names for a similar position, and that the latter note is the Greek translation of the previous. Their perspectives don't appear to be right: there are robust purposes, ...

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There is another revealing trend in the environmental record. To a large extent the beginning of the Neolithic period corresponds with a dramatic decline in the amount of elm pollen. It no longer seems likely that this is the result of a specific economic practice, like ring-barking growing trees or collecting leaf fodder. It is more likely that the phenomenon results from the rapid spread of a disease which attacked this particular species (Girling and Grieg 1985). It happened over such a restricted period of time that the ‘Elm Decline’ has been used as a chronological marker, and yet it seems likely that the spread of the disease itself was facilitated by the movement of people on an increasing scale.

The earliest traces of cultivation with the primitive plough known as an ard occurs even later, between about 3500 and 3250 BC (Sherratt 1997: fig. 2). Still more important, the settlements which do contain a mixture of Mesolithic and Neolithic material culture are largely found along a restricted section of the Scottish coastline, but there is nothing to prove that both assemblages were in use simultaneously (WickhamJones 1990; Armit and Finlayson 1992). Although this could be compared with P1: JZZ 0521848113c02 CUFX059/Bradlay Printer: cupusbw 0 521 84811 3 March 9, 2007 6:9 A New Beginning the evidence from Northern Europe, it seems to be a local phenomenon, and one which may even have happened some time after the beginning of the Neolithic period.

9). McGrail’s research was specifically concerned with the sea routes documented by Classical writers in the immediate pre-Roman period. This is important because it explains some of the premises of his argument. It is 19 P1: JZZ 0521848113c01 CUFX059/Bradlay 20 Printer: cupusbw 0 521 84811 3 March 8, 2007 6:17 The Prehistory of Britain and Ireland concerned with trade in bulky commodities including wine amphorae and tin. It also presupposes that ships were equipped with sails. This is a reasonable proposition and is supported by depictions of late prehistoric vessels, but it is likely that earlier boats were rowed or paddled.

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