By Dr. Roland A. Souchez, Dr. Reginald D. Lorrain (auth.)
Ice composition has in the past been in general used for reconstructing the surroundings of the prior. a superb study attempt is made at the present time to version the weather procedure during which the ice hide on the earth sur face performs a sought after position. to procure an accurate version of the ice sheets, due realization has to be paid to the actual approaches working on the interfaces, i. e. the boundary stipulations. the assumption in the back of the identify of this booklet is that the learn of ice composition can shed a few gentle at the quite a few methods working on the ice bedrock and ice-ocean interfaces and extra commonly on glacier dy namics. The publication isn't meant as a treatise on a few really expert subject of glaciology. it's frequently the fabricated from the adventure of the 2 authors received over a number of years examine at the topic. the 2 authors are either individuals of an identical college division and private pals. The booklet used to be ready within the following manner. After a primary draft of the full booklet were written through the 1st writer, it used to be installed the arms of the second one. the ultimate model despatched to the publishers is consequently the results of ex tended dialogue, whereas while keeping the harmony of favor that might were misplaced had the 2 authors written chosen chapters of the booklet separately. The publication is equipped into specified parts.
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Additional info for Ice Composition and Glacier Dynamics
III 2 Fig. 16. The Devon Island Ice Cap, Northwest Territories, Canada. 1 Zone of superimposed ice. 2 Nunataks. Contour interval 200 m. (After Fig. 1 in Koerner 1970) Towards the bed of an ice sheet, basal ice can occur. This type of ice is completely different from the glacier ice above and can usually be easily distinguished by its high debris content. Basal ice owes its origin, partially or totally, to processes operating at the base of ice sheets, ice caps or valley glaciers. It can emerge, like glacier ice, in the ablation zone of the ice sheet, deformed by the flow and the changing stress configuration.
6p : q : -is -20 : -10 - 50 ·5 5 :40 :-'5: • • • ~ :" - 2 5 6: 0 Fig. 1. Upper part (summer or warm climatic conditions): simplified circulation model showing the oxygen isotope fractionation during the evaporation of ocean water (to the left) and the subsequent precipitation, when the air is gradually cooled off by travelling towards higher latitudes or ascending to higher altitude over an ice sheet (to the right). Lower part (winter or cool climatic conditions): same as above, except that a cooling, increasing with latitude, has changed the isotopic fallout pattern into lower o's at any mid and high latitude locality.
Ice caps can also display these different ice zones, with the exception of the dry snow zone. This is the case on the Devon Island Ice Cap where most of the surface is still in the accumulation zone and where a superimposed ice zone is present (Fig. 16). However, in the Barnes Ice Cap, Baffin Island, also in Arctic Canada, the only type of glacier ice formed is superimposed ice and in some years the entire ice cap is in the ablation zone. Wide fluctuations in the position of the equilibrium line are thus characteristic of such an ice cap.