By R. N. Cunliffe, Y. R. Mahida (auth.), Y. R. Mahida (eds.)
Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are universal. there's expanding appreciation of the significance of the immune process within the pathogenesis of a couple of those illnesses. This e-book covers easy features of innate and adaptive immunity within the gastrointestinal tract, oral tolerance, and mobile and molecular mechanisms of acute and protracted irritation. particular affliction lined contain bacterial infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) an infection, coeliac disorder, and inflammatory bowel illness. different subject matters comprise mucosal immunisation and intestinal transplantation immunology.
The readership of this publication comprises clinicians, scientists, and scholars drawn to the gastrointestinal tract.
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Additional resources for Immunological Aspects of Gastroenterology
The beneficial effects of immunisation with the formalin-inactivated or the live attenuated polio vaccines have been one of the successes of modern healthcare. Mucosal responses (measured through the induction of secretory IgA) are important as they prevent infection or reinfection, and it is possible that the wild-type virus can continue to circulate silently in populations vaccinated with parenteral inactivated vaccine who have little or no mucosal immunity. The 2 In these experiments the animals were challenged through the bronchial mucosa 44 ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY IN THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT success of polio vaccination generally in Europe, and the use of the inactivated vaccine in the Netherlands has allowed the demonstration that exposure to the live attenuated virus is necessary to achieve mucosal immunisation, although the inactivated parenteral vaccine will boost mucosal responses in people that were previously vaccinated with the oral live attenuated virus (59) or those naturally infected with the wild-type virus (60).
D. Michaelson, L. Liu and T. Ganz. The structure of neutrophil defensin genes. FEBS Lett 1993;321 (2-3):267-73. Mallow EB, Harris A, Salzman N et al. Human enteric defensins. Gene structure and developmental expression. J Bioi Chern 1996;271(8):4038-45. Ouellette AJ. and Selsted ME. Paneth cell defensins: endogenous peptide components of intestinal host defense. FASEB J 1996;10(11): 1280-9. Liu L, Zhao C, Heng HH and Ganz T. The human beta-defensin-I and alphadefensins are encoded by adjacent genes: two peptide families with differing disulfide topology share a common ancestry.
SLPI has a bipartite structure with two similar domains, the C-terminal of which is responsible for the molecule's anti protease activity. Until recently, the main role ofSLPI was believed to be in preventing neutrophil elastase induced inflammatory damage in the lung. It is now however recognised that SLPI has antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The mechanism of this antimicrobial activity is unclear, but it is believed to reside in the N-terminal domain ofthe molecule, and may depend on its cationic properties, and include binding to microbial nucleic acid (139).