By Andreas Hierlemann
This e-book, "Integrated Chemical Microsensor platforms in CMOS Technology", presents a finished therapy of the hugely interdisciplinary box of CMOS chemical microsensor platforms. it's precise at scholars, scientists and engineers who're drawn to gaining an advent to the sphere of chemical sensing seeing that the entire precious basic wisdom is integrated. although, because it presents unique info on all very important concerns on the topic of the belief of chemical microsensors in CMOS know-how, it additionally addresses specialists good conversant in the sector. After a short creation, the basics of chemical sensing are offered. Fabrication and processing steps which are ordinary within the semiconductor are then distinctive by means of a brief description of the microfabrication ideas, and of the CMOS substrate and fabrics. Thereafter, a entire assessment of semiconductor-based and CMOS-based transducer buildings for chemical sensors is given. CMOS-technology is then brought as platform expertise, which permits the mixing of those microtransducers with the required riding and sign conditioning circuitry at the related chip. In a subsequent part, the advance of monolithic multisensor arrays and entirely built microsystems with on-chip sensor keep watch over and conventional interfaces is defined. a quick part on packaging indicates that suggestions from the semiconductor should be utilized to chemical microsensor packaging. The ebook concludes with a short outlook on destiny advancements, corresponding to the belief of extra complicated built-in microsensor structures and techniques to interface organic fabrics, akin to cells, with CMOS microelectronics.
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Extra info for Integrated Chemical Microsensor Systems in CMOS Technology (Microtechnology and MEMS)
For a given piezoelectric substrate, the acoustic wavelength and, thus, the operating frequency of the SAW is determined by the transducer periodicity, which is equal to the acoustic wavelength at the transducer center frequency. Typical frequencies range between 100 and 500 MHz [61–63]. Such frequencies require a sophisticated high-frequency circuit design. Therefore, a bare reference oscillator is operated together with the sensor in many cases, and the outputs are mixed to produce a diﬀerence frequency with values in the kHz-range that is recorded [74, 76].
2 Thermal Sensors Calorimetric or thermal sensors rely on determining the presence or concentration of a chemical species by measurement of an enthalpy change produced by the chemical to be detected [1,4,64,109]. 9). Reactions liberating heat are termed exothermic, reactions abstracting heat are termed endothermic. This thermal eﬀect shows a transient behavior: Continuous heat liberation/abstraction occurs only as long as the reaction proceeds. This implies that only a steady-state situation can be achieved: A chemical reaction is proceeding at a constant rate and is thus releasing/abstracting permanently a constant amount of heat.
The prerequisite is an anisotropic, noncentrosymmetric crystal lattice. Upon mechanical stress, charged particles are displaced and thus generate a measurable electric charge in the crystal. In turn, mechanical deformations can be achieved by applying a voltage to such a crystal (for details, see ). Using an alternating current (AC), the crystals can be electrically excited into a fundamental mechanical resonance mode. The resonance frequency, which is the recorded sensor output in most cases, changes in proportion to the mass loading on the crystal or device.