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Once made, this chromosome would be inserted into yeast cells to replicate, since yeast cells are relatively simple and well characterized but otherwise resemble cells of higher organisms. Construction begins with a commonly used “bacterial plasmid,” a small, circular, autonomously replicating section of DNA. Enzymes are then called upon to create a gap in this “cloning vector” into which the three chromosomal elements are spliced. In addition, genes that confer some distinct trait, such as color, to yeast cells are also inserted, thus making it possible to determine which cells have actually taken up the new chromosome.

Defended the award. Haber left Germany in 1933 under duress from the anti-Semitic policies of the Nazi authorities. He was invited to accept a position with the University of Cambridge, England, and died on a trip to Basel, Switzerland, a few months later, a great man whose spirit had been crushed by the actions of an evil regime. See also Fuel cell; Refrigerant gas; Silicones; Thermal cracking process. Further Reading Goran, Morris Herbert. The Story of Fritz Haber. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967.

The first phase consisted of the administration of Fluosol-DA to normal human volunteers. Twelve healthy volunteers were administered the chemical, and the emulsion’s effects on blood pressure and composition and on heart, liver, and kidney functions were monitored. No adverse effects were found in any case. The first phase ended in March, 1979, and based on its positive results, the second and third phases were begun in April, 1979. Twenty-four Japanese medical institutions were involved in the next two phases.

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