By Maud W. Gleason
The careers of 2 well known second-century rhetorical virtuosos supply Maud Gleason interesting insights into the methods old Romans developed masculinity in the course of a time marked by means of anxiousness over manly deportment. Declamation was once a thrilling paintings shape for the Greeks and bilingual Romans of the second one Sophistic circulation, and its top practitioners may shuttle the empire appearing in entrance of enraptured audiences. The mastery of rhetoric marked the transition to manhood for all aristocratic electorate and remained the most important to a man's social status.
In treating rhetoric as a strategy of self-presentation in a face-to-face society, Gleason analyzes the deportment and writings of the 2 Sophists - Favorinus, a eunuch, and Polemo, a guy who met traditional gender expectancies - to indicate the methods personality and gender have been perceived. Physiognomical texts of the period express how carefully males scrutinized each other for minute indicators of gender deviance in such positive factors as gait, gesture, facial features, and voice. Rhetoricians knowledgeable to boost those features in a "masculine" model. reading the profitable occupation of Favorinus, whose high-pitched voice and florid presentation contrasted sharply with the traditionalist type of Polemo, Gleason exhibits, despite the fact that, that perfect masculine habit used to be no longer a monolithic abstraction.
In a hugely available research treating the semiotics of deportment and the scientific, cultural, and ethical matters surrounding rhetorical job, she explores the probabilities of self presentation within the look for attractiveness as a speaker and a man.
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Additional resources for Making Men: Sophists and Self-Presentation in Ancient Rome
G. Wissowa, E. , 1893- ) Revue des Etudes anciennes Revue des Etudes grecques (Plato) Republic Rheinisches Museum for Philologie Rhetorica ad Herennium (Lucian) Teacher of Rhetoric Thucydides "under the word/heading" (Aelian) Varia historia Yale Classical Studies Zeitschrijt for Papyrologie und Epigraphik MAKING MEN Chapter One FAVORINUS AND HIS STATUE He used to speak in oracular riddles about the three paradoxes of his life: he was a Gaul who spoke Greek, a eunuch who was prosecuted for adultery, a man who had quarreled with the emperor and was still alive.
64. 9 Peter Garnsey and Richard Saller, The Roman Empire: Economy, Society, Culture (London I Berkeley, 1987), 183. 10 For the neocorate in this period as a mark of civic prestige, see S. Price, Rituals and Power (Cambridge, 1984),64-65 with n. 47. lIOn these terms for officials in the imperial cult, see L. Robert, "Recherches epigraphiques 6, Inscription d'Athenes," REA 62 (1960), 321 with nn. 6 and 7.
Cf. Plato, Laws 9. 873e-874a. At Athens the knife that killed the bull at the Bouphonia was tried for murder: Paus. 30. 53 Pails. 2-9. 54 Or. 95-97. Favorinus was said to have been Dio's pupil: Philostratus, Lives 490. 55 Poetics 1552a7ff. See also Plutarch, Mor. 553D. 59-60. The victim is, in a sense, a murderer himself since he has caused his rejected suitor to commit suicide. 57 Anth. Pal. 67. 58 Lover of Lies 18-20. F f, V 0 R I NUS AND HIS S TAT U E, 15 whose hollow insides were manned by pagan priests with secret access from the room next door, 59 and polemicists claimed that the talking heads used in craniomancy were actually fitted out with speaking tubes.