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By V. E. Carter

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T h i s w i l l b e f o l l o w e d b y the c h e m i c a l o x i d a t i o n of f e r r o u s h y d r o x i d e t o h y d r a t e d ferric o x i d e o r rust b y the o x y g e n p r e s e n t in the w a t e r . T h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t t o n o t e is that s i n c e the rust is f o r m e d a w a y f r o m the s u r f a c e of the m e t a l it c a n n o t h a v e a n y effect o n the r a t e o f c o r r o s i o n . 9 s h o w s a h y p o t h e t i c a l cell that illustrates the c o r r o s i o n of steel in o x y g e n a t e d sea w a t e r .

H o w e v e r , there are a n u m b e r of e x c e p t i o n s : tin is a n o d i c t o steel in s o l u t i o n s of c e r t a i n o r g a n i c a c i d s ( c i t r i c , t a r t a r i c , o x a l i c , m a l i c ) a n d their salts, in fruit j u i c e s c o n t a i n i n g t h e s e a c i d s , in m e a t a n d m e a t d e r i v a t i v e s a n d in a l k a l i n e s o l u t i o n s . I n this c o n n e c t i o n it s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t tin in S n 2+ ions forms a reversible elec- t r o d e , a n d t h a t tin h a s a s t r o n g t e n d e n c y t o f o r m c o m p l e x e s w i t h o r g a n i c a c i d s , w i t h a c o n s e q u e n t d e c r e a s e in the a c t i v i t y of S n 2+ to a l o w v a l u e ( s e e e q u a t i o n 1 .

0 V v s S H E ) m a r k e d l y i n c r e a s e s the c o r r o s i o n r a t e of the l a t t e r m e r c u r y h a s little effect. T h i s is b e c a u s e magnesium in s e a w a t e r corrodes with hydrogen evolution, and w h e r e a s p l a t i n u m is a g o o d c a t a l y s t for the h y d r o g e n - e v o l u t i o n r e a c t i o n m e r c u r y is n o t . 26 0-25 0-25 014 013 010 008 0-53 T h e n e w B S I D r a f t C o m m e n t a r y o n c o r r o s i o n at b i m e t a l l i c c o n tacts and its alleviation now being prepared includes detailed i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f a c o d e ( 0 , n o a d d i t i o n a l c o r r o s i o n ; 1, s l i g h t additional c o r r o s i o n ; 2 , fairly s e v e r e a d d i t i o n a l c o r r o s i o n ; 3, v e r y severe a d d i t i o n a l c o r r o s i o n ) w h i c h indicates h o w the metal under c o n s i d e r a t i o n is a f f e c t e d w h e n c o u p l e d t o o t h e r m e t a l s d u r i n g e x p o s u r e t o t h e a t m o s p h e r e o r i m m e r s i o n in n a t u r a l w a t e r s .

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