By Ludwig Reimer (auth.), Dr. Daniele Benoit, Dr. Jean-Francois Bresse, Luc Van’t dack, Univ.-Prof. Dr. Helmut Werner, Univ.-Doz. Dr. Johann Wernisch (eds.)
The ecu Microanalysis Society held its Fourth Workshop in Saint Malo in could 1995. This quantity comprises the revised displays, 10 educational chapters and 50 short articles, from top specialists in electron probe microanalysis, secondary mass spectroscopy, analytical electron microscopy, and similar fields.
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Extra info for Microbeam and Nanobeam Analysis
Some of the specific problems of the soft X-ray field are examined: surface contamination, coating of insulating specimens, line interference, background subtraction, line distortion, mass absorption coefficients. Key words: soft X-rays, low-energy lines, X-ray microanalysis, electron microprobe, analytical scanning electron microscopy. In microanalysis, the soft X-ray range can be defined as extending from'" 1 keY down to '" 100eY. This corresponds to photons that could not be detected in the early times of the technique.
AI 4 o Pt Ref. 40 b. Ni ref. <) o -Tanuma et al. -< -... 30 0- ~ 20 <) 10 25 20 o a Ni o Au ret. o Pt ref . • AI ref. -Tanuma et al - -Lesiak et aI. -< -... 15 • 0- ~ 10 5 25 20 • • ~ b Pt o Au ref . 6 Ni ref. • AI ref. -Tanuma et al. - - Lesiak et aI. o -< -... 15 0- ~ -_ .. -"-- 5 25 20 c <) Pt ref. 6 Ni ref. Au • AI ref. -Tanuma et al. -< -... 15 0- ~ 10 5 d 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 energy leV Fig. 13. IMPF values for AI, Ni, Pt and Au in the energy range 250-1500eV, as determined from experimental reflection coefficients using the presented approach.
Tilinin, SurI Interface Anal. 1994,22,120 W. S. M. Werner, Phys. Rev. 1955, 15, 2964. A. Jablonski, H. Ebel, Surf Interface Anal. 1988, 11, 627. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer, Dover Publications, New York, 1960. W. S. M. Werner, W. H. Gries, H. Stari, J. Vue. Sci. Technol. 1991, A9, 21. W. S. M. Werner, W. H. Gries, H. Stari, SurI Inte~face Anal. 1991, 17, 693. H. Wagner, C. Schiebl, W. S. M. Werner, Mikrochim. ] 13,623. I. S. Tilinin, Poverkhnost 1988,8, 5. (in Russian). W. S. M. Werner, 1996, to be published 1996 J.