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By Osman Shahi

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Extra resources for Model-based External Forcing of Nonlinear Dynamics in Chemical and Biochemical Reaction via Optimal Control (PhD thesis 2008)

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2 nM/h), the effect of a light pulse is different. 13. In such conditions, suppression of the circadian rhythm by the light pulse is only transient. Both transient and permanent suppression of circadian rhythms by single, critical perturbations have been observed experimentally [128]. However, neither the phase at which the stimulus have to be applied nor the characteristics of the critical stimulus strength for suppression or restoration of oscillations are a priori clear. 13: Permanent and transient suppression of circadian rhythmicity by light pulses in the Drosophila clock model.

Ideally, by correctly timing the phototherapeutic treatment, the rate of resynchronization to local time can be accelerated. Issues related to diagnosis and treatment: Many physiological and behavioral variables change in a rhythmic manner over the course of a day. Sampling at different times of the day and knowing the natural rhythm of the variables in question would allow physicians a more precise account of the status of the patient. However, in addition to the inherent problem of feasibility in round-the-clock sampling, other factors such as exposure to “unnatural” light conditions or malfunctions in circadian timing system might lead to rhythms that are altered, rendering the observed variables unreliable as a diagnostic indicator.

Small black boxes indicate E-box elements; small P, phosphorylation; CLK, mCLOCK (The figure is taken from Ref. [31]). mic production of CLOCK/BMAL1 complexes in both mice and flies, although its target has switched. Finally, PER protein products have been shown to weakly suppress CLOCK/BMAL1-dependent mP er1 transcription in cultured mammalian cells [115]. These results would seem to support a role very similar to that seen for PER (PER/TIM complex) in Drosophila, as a negative regulator of its own transcription and a positive regulator of the dCLK/CYC complex.

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