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By Julian Le Grand

Will we depend on the altruism of execs or the general public carrier ethos to bring high quality future health and schooling prone? How should still sufferers, mom and dad and students behave - as thankful recipients or lively shoppers? The publication offers new solutions to those questions, and evaluates contemporary executive guidelines in future health providers, schooling, social defense and taxation, and places ahead proposals for coverage reform: common capital or 'demogrants', discriminating vouchers, matching supplies for pensions and for long term care and hypothecated taxes.

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Additional info for Motivation, Agency, and Public Policy: Of Knights and Knaves, Pawns and Queens

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This involved a survey of 125 NHS staff: 65 managers, 24 hospital doctors, 20 medical managers, and 16 GPs. Again, the researchers found a strong commitment to altruistic concerns. 30 None of the groups was especially motivated by prospect of personal gain; ‘the amount I earn’, ‘my status in the community’, and ‘my career development prospects’ all ranked near the bottom. This is consistent with previous research concerning the motivation of hospital consultants (Shaw, Mitchell, and Dawson 1995).

In our terminology, knaves can be defined as self-interested individuals who are motivated to help others only if by so doing they will serve their private interests; whereas knights are individuals who are motivated to help others for no private reward, and indeed who may undertake such activities to the detriment of their own private interests. Put another way, the distinction is between, on the one hand, those who are motivated to perform only those activities that are of direct benefit to their own material welfare, such as their own personal consumption of material goods, and, on the other hand, those that are motivated to engage in ‘other-directed’ activities, that is, activities which benefit others and which do not positively affect their own material 24 See Batson (1991: ch.

This led to a policy drive to replace state-based delivery systems by market-based ones, which were viewed as better placed to harness the forces of self-interest to serve the (newly discovered) consumers of public services. Systems run by knights for the benefits of pawns were to be replaced by ones run by knaves 24 KNIGHTS AND KNAVES IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR in the service of queens. Subsequently, although there has been a partial move away from market incentives in some areas such as health care, the essence has remained in others, such as education and social services.

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