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By Richard Ned Lebow

Id is the grasp variable for plenty of constructivist students of foreign politics. during this comparative learn, Richard Ned Lebow indicates that states should not have identities any further than humans do. Leaders, peoples, and international actors search to impose nationwide identifications in step with their political tasks and mental wishes. those identifications are a number of, fluid and upward push in value as a functionality of priming and context. Leaders are not less than as more likely to invoke nationwide identifications as rationalizations for regulations pursued for different purposes as they're to be motivated through them. nationwide identifications are however vital simply because they continuously rigidity the alleged specialty of a humans and its nation, and are a central technique of looking prestige and development vainness. Lebow tracks the relative charm of those ideas, the ways that they're developed, how they effect nationwide identifications, and the way they in flip impact local and foreign practices.

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Competing national identifications need not cause acute conflict when they share enough in common to sustain cooperation for the general welfare. They may allow leaders to build coalitions that include seemingly opposed groups. S. presidential election and introduce the New Deal. 33 The constituents of this coalition had different understandings of America, what the Democratic Party represented, and how country and party reflected their self-identifications. , chs.  See Jackson, “Culture, Identity and Hegemony” on the war against terrorism as a continuation of Cold War identity politics.

It confers symbolic immortality on those who perform well the social roles derived from this worldview or live up to its behavioral standards. 46 Identifications enable relationships and intimacy. They create bonds and expectations among people who become part a group. Group membership also brings people into closer contact, thereby facilitating relationships and intimacy. Group solidarity may be most important for people in low-status and marginal groups. American examples include the Amish, orthodox Jews, and recent immigrants to almost any country who congregate in the same neighborhood and develop all kinds of mutual support networks.

11 Giddens, by contrast, insists that autobiographies must be to some degree based on facts. He represents a tradition that extends back to Rousseau and his belief that individual uniqueness is rooted in diverse life experiences. These modern authorities are mute on the subject of how we can create stories of ourselves that capture our uniqueness and continuity in the face of the knowledge that such narratives are eminently malleable in response to social cues. If our autobiographies evolve to suit our social and psychological needs, we cannot characterize them as either continuous or reality-based.

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