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By Barbara Alice Mann

Ever on the grounds that ecu settlers stumbled upon the eighteenth-century mounds, motives and interpretations of them – usually ridiculous and rarely local American – have seemed as sober scholarship. at the present time, the local American Graves defense and Repatriation Act of 1990 (NAGPRA) has intensified the talk over who «owns» the mounds – smooth descendants of the Mound developers or Western archaeologists. Native american citizens, Archaeologists, and the Mounds is the 1st cogent examine all of the matters surrounding the mounds, their heritage, their protection, and their interpretation. utilizing the traditions of these Natives descended from the Mound developers in addition to ancient and archaeological facts, Barbara Alice Mann positioned the mounds of their local cultural context as she examines the fraught concerns enveloping them within the twenty-first century.

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Barton thus brought up the 1776 Kamchatka voyages of Captain James Cook, venturing that if the two continents of Asia and America be separated at all, it is only by a narrow streight [sic]. So that from this side also, inhabitants may have passed into America: and the resemblance between the Indians of America and the Eastem inhabitants of Asia would induce us to conjecture, that the fomier are the descendants of the latter, or the latter of the It is worth noting that, unlike Acosta and most modem scholars.

Far from unique, Blumenbach's discussions mirrored and reinforced contemporary European and Euroamerican thoughts on race. Early nineteenthcentury Euroamericans saw European-Native and European-African intermating as identical with European-ape mating. " Having invented a "Malay" race, determined that all non-European races were degenerate forms of the pure "Caucasian," and defined interracial mating as interspecies "hybridity," Blumenbach tossed in "craniometry" (comparative skull measurements) as evidence, a move that was to prove crucial for Native Americans from the nineteenth century on into the present.

If an Indian speaks, it is in a slow and studied manner, and to avoid committing himself he often resorts to metaphorical phrases which have no precise meaning. If he seeks an enemy, it is through unfrequented paths, in the dead of night, and with every device for concealment and surprise. When he meets his victim, the same instinctive feeling governs all his movements. His motive is to destroy without being destroyed, and he avails himself of every subterfuge that can protect his own person while he seeks the life of his antagonist.

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