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The size distribution of the majority of real powder samples is usually skewed toward the larger end of the particle size scale, and such powders are better described using the log-normal distribution type. This terminology has arisen since when the particle distribution is plotted using the logarithm of the particle size, the skewed curve is transformed into one closely resembling a normal distribution. The distribution in a log-normal representation can be completely specified by two parameters, the geometric median particle size (dg) and the standard deviation in the geometric mean (sg).
A determination can be easily made regarding the relative crystallinity of the material, and skilled workers can deduce crystallographic information as well. Unknown particulates can often be identified solely based on their microscopic characteristics, although it is useful to obtain confirmatory support for these conclusions with the aid of microscopically assisted techniques. Both optical and electron microscopies have found widespread use for the characterization of pharmaceutical solids. Optical microscopy is limited in the range of magnification suitable for routine work, with an upper limit of approximately 600Â is associated with problems in maintaining depth of focus.
2 CHARACTERIZATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOUNDS IN THE SOLID STATE 45 Another extremely important micromeritic parameter is that of powder density, which is defined as the ratio of mass to volume. Three types of density are normally differentiated, which differ in their determination of volume occupied by the powder. 190 When a graduated cylinder is used for the measurement, the volume is determined to the nearest milliliter. The bulk density is then obtained by dividing the mass of solid by the unsettled apparent volume.